Purpose-Driven Human-Computer Interaction

Within the years past of the second millennium AD, there is a discussion about the predicted future of human-computer interaction in dialogues related to computing technology. In a fictional science fiction video game concentrating on cybernetic augmentations in society, Deus Ex: Human Revolution (Eidos Montreal, 2011), an article is given called Nano-Augmentation – Pipedream, or Theory for the Future. The fictional article in the game asserts:

In the decade to come, the enhanced beings — post humans who are our progeny– will look at the mechanical devices we rudely bolted on to our living flesh or buried inside our grey matter, and they will mock us for our crudity. They will look upon what we have made with the same curiosity, the same disinterest, as the pilot of the veetol helicopter would look upon an ox-cart. (2011)

The premise of this story is not an aberration of the world, but rather a checkpoint on the path towards human-computer interconnectivity. Ray Bradbury wrote about the slights people would perceive in an environment essentially saturated in computing technologies that surveil society. Bradbury (1953) wrote that the self-described murderer of technology said, “I’m the vanguard of the small public which is tired of the noise and being taken advantage of and pushed around and yelled at, every moment music, every moment in touch with some voice somewhere” (p. 299).  In contemporary times, the field of engineering solution discussed by a wide domain of computer science including cyber security is called The Internet of Things. A writer for the Journal of Engineering (2014) said, “Slowly shaping the market in embedded security or the testing and auditing of IoT applications prior to launch are the first steps in providing a trustworthy base: Arrayent, Hewlett-Packard, Microchip, NXP Semiconductors, Sonatype, and Wind River.” Therefore, major participants for the future of human-computer interaction consider this field relevant enough that it is invested in for the purpose of embedding computing systems into human lives, but forward presentations do not discuss the strength of the flank that ushers in the legality of human-computer interaction. Although the truth of innovation being followed by litigation may be thought of as an avoidable practice, the relevance of confronting the exponential growth of technology with the notion that the rest of its users is part of the human psyche.

Statista, an organization that provides scholarly communities with facts and statistics explained the origin of the Internet of Things (IoT). Statista stated, “In 1999, British technologist Kevin Ashton came up with the term Internet of Things (IoT) to define a network that not only connects people, but also the objects around them” (Web 1). What Kevin Ashton labeled, Ray Bradbury expressed as something that would result in slights harming people attributable to societal misconceptions about the benefits of relying on normalized science and technology without inner sanity and outward care for results that benefit the common man. The question that follows naturally depends on the historical and Biblical truth (KJV) that “That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment” (Mat 12:36). Therefore, the reader might ask what benefit is scientific understanding and technological connectivity if it does not result in the advancement of humanity in a moral sense. The notion that the Deus Ex: Human Revolution presents related to curiosity and mockery as a result of progress is a focus of this because the strength of character does not necessarily evolve, so to speak, with, what in this case may be sarcastically called, character displacement of technological adaptation. Having said that, value may be found by accepting that the big picture of scientific advancement and technological innovation is justified through correct faith applied for the common man, male and female. This is so that he may be offered a hand up and understand that the machinery that augments the person extending it will be a beautiful instance of equipping him with the mental tools for giving him an active voice in society.

References

ABI research; internet of things is cybersecurity’s next frontier, according to ABI research. (2014). Journal of Engineering, 718.

Bradbury, R. (1953). The Murderer.

Nano-Augmentation – Pipedream, or Theory for the Future [Deus Ex: Human Revolution]. Montreal, Canada: Eidos Montreal.

Web 1. Statista. (n.d.). Internet of Things – Statistics & Facts. Retrieved December 21, 2016.

Advertisements

Epistemology and Information on the Internet

A practice that is relevant to the development of views is finding citable sources. However, what constitutes a citable source is predicated on the notion that a source is trustworthy.

In contemporary times, one of the most relevant topics related to developing views is how we accept what we consider useful for dissemination, and the Internet is related to that. Bo Brinkman and Alton F. Sanders (2013) said, “Epistemology, roughly speaking, studies the nature of knowledge and how we know what we know” (p. 211). A practice that is relevant to the development of views is finding citable sources. However, what constitutes a citable source is predicated on the notion that a source is trustworthy. Brinkman and Sanders mentioned that the start of the age of Enlightenment began societal dependence on singular experts who apply reason and construct knowledge (p. 211). Although this is the progress of history from a secular perspective and is valid as a concept of reason, it is a position apart from the grace of the Most High. We may look to the ancient philosophy, that of science, also relevant for an understanding of how Biblical truths are germane. In paraphrasing, Stephen Law (2007) said,

Scientists construct theories they believe are confirmed by what they observe. Such confirmation, however, comes in degrees. A theory might be very slightly confirmed by a piece of evidence, or it might be very strongly confirmed. One question we might ask about confirmation is: what makes one theory more strongly confirmed than the next? (170)

For Biblical truths, I think that individuals and people may rely on trust. The strongest argument that a skeptic could say against trusting the Biblical Scriptures is that no sense of self or self-concept may be trusted; all of reality could be a hologram for a single brain interfacing with a computer while placed in a vat. However, the notion that nothing is real therefore nothing is permitted is an induction of an induction, and doing so is a failure to build a general or specific argument based on the character of an individual person or people related to an action or series of actions. Without the acknowledgment of differentiated character, there can be no general brain in a vat. Without a general commanding character, there can be no multiple brains in vats. The notion that a computer could represent human ideals as well as human immorality and unethical behavior as an unconstructed leader that could be known in human terms separates the skeptic’s argument from a brain in a vat controlled by a computer from the essential resulting position that is a computer that is co-dependent on the brain because the best that the computer could be is another level of creation. There must be an ultimate level of truth by the skeptic’s own method of exhaustion. As Thomas Aquinas said of the highest level of existence that must be apart from reality, et-hoc-dicimus-deum: “And this we call God.” (Charry, 2000, p. 33). In proposing this position as the basis of trust, I think that sources that seek truth may be trusted.

When reviewing reports from one source or another on a single issue and there are contradictory reports, that may be an indicator of some unseen truth that may be derived or, on the other side of the mathematical axis of logic, induced. Although there is a contemporary notion that a truth is merely a fact, Biblical truths are facts that apply to all of mankind, male and female. Different people saying the exact same thing about an event implies that there is one source thus different people saying different things about an event implies that there are multiple sources and is more trustworthy than a single source. A Biblical truth that is relevant to this discussion is a verse from Mosaic Law. The Book of Deuteronomy (KJV) says, “One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or any sin, in any sin that he sinneth: at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall the matter be established” (19:15). Therefore, even with two or more sources, if these so-called sources have a single source for themselves linking them all together, two separate sources are more historically credible in a way that truths may be respected and understood.

With that said, the Internet offers access to much data on the internet, but in my experience, there are relatively few major sources of information. The vertical honor or prestige that is apparent is elevated from the base of horizontal honor that is introductory recognition. For the purpose of keeping the freedoms of speech and equal protections led by the United States, alternative sources or news should probably be acknowledged in a truthful way. Going against that is an attack on the integrity of character that Internet news sources have respect for apart from mere consistency. Rather than only consistency, the integrity of character that I speak of is the consistency of doing right things. Without that kind of integrity, any notion of doing the right thing is coated by the subject of seeking an end that results in maximum good for a particular group of people rather than what benefits man in common. As a Christian American, I believe that those who lack in basic necessities such as knowledge need truths that may help enrich characters so even if money is tight, people may rejoice in the blessings that they do have or will have with hard work.

Even though the epistemology that people may take for granted can be useful in a variety of disciplines, I think that there are issues with contemporary perspectives related to the development of views about contemporary issues. There is a useful application for the skeptic’s strongest position and that is the recognition that computer that the brain in a vat is attached to would ultimately be a part of creation as well, so assuming the highest existence as beyond reality that is thus supernatural is more tenable. Having said that, distinguishing truths that apply to all men, male and female, may help recognize fact from fiction for the purpose of developing information relevant for dissemination on the Internet.

References

Brinkman, W. J., & Sanders, A. F. (2013). Ethics in a Computing Culture. Boston, MA.

Charry, E. T. (2000). Inquiring after God: Classic and contemporary readings. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Law, S. (2012). Philosophy.

 

A Proposal for a Power Management System

For the stability and efficiency of power supply and power grid management thus for the benefit of daily human life and work, a power monitoring system was designed based on a smart grid management platform by Jianwei Zhang and Hao Yang. From various data, the mobile service aware opportunistic embedded architecture of mobile crowd sensing networks for power network measurement automation is discussed. Its parts include a mobile crowd sensing network for power grid management, the mobile service aware opportunistic embedded system, and the grid intelligent management of the embedded systems as well as the performance analysis of the embedded system. The core of the intelligent network management is the operation and control scheme of the embedded equipment related to the intelligent power grid. Based on its aspects, including embedded devices and an equipment group of cooperative control among other things, the grid management of intelligent electric power dispatching and intelligent substation of the crowd sensing network management could be realized through the deployment of embedded equipment and a communication network along with singular front-end embedded devices of data perception. As I understand this, the operating system of an Embedded System could communicate with the embedded equipment for the purpose of dispatching electric power. There would be an embedded control equipment testing. Then, embedded logic control followed by a distributed Embedded System (ES) point to point that leads to the connectivity of mobile crowd sensing networks. Then the Mobile Crowd Sensing Networks would communicate to the ES while also sending data to an electric grid server that would, in turn, update the ES. The experimental system has a grid management scope of ten kilometers by twelve kilometers, a power grid management system running time of twenty-four hours, and also a maximum communication distance of one kilometer for embedded mobile devices.

Essentially, this asserted scheme is in a position of superiority to the distributed power management system because of framework complexity, utilization efficiency, and intelligent power grid management level among other aspects. The Biblical Scriptures say much about choice. The Bible says, “No one can serve two masters. Either you will hate the one and love the other, or you will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve both God and money” (NIV, Mat 6:24). Jesus the Christ was saying that people must make a choice between the LORD and the desires world. This can be interpreted as accepting the moral imperative of serving the world for the Father. Therefore, I think that this may be applied to the relevance of mobile service aware opportunistic embedded architecture of mobile crowd sensing networks for power network measurement automation, well. The essential data about this are that it offers a more robust framework for applying more efficient energy products for people that are at a greater level in the category of power grid management. With these data, people have an opportunity of experiencing improved lives. I say this because God does not want us suffering. The legal requirement for sin that is death was paid with the life of His son, Immanuel. Therefore, I think that this is a good system that should be considered for better life and for God’s namesake. This is in agreement with Zhang and Yang, and with the integrated faith position that the morality of technological advancement validates the existence of its state of change throughout history.

Zhang, J., & Yang, H. (2016). Mobile service aware opportunistic embedded architecture of mobile crowd sensing networks for power network measurement. EURASIP Journal On Embedded Systems, 2016(1), 1-9. doi:10.1186/s13639-016-0023-0

 

Computer Locks and Threads

For this post, an area of threads is discussed. On January the first of 2015, Davidlohr Bueso released a paper called Scalability Techniques for Practical Synchronization Primitives dealing with locks. According to Bueso, locks are a method of concurrent execution of more than one thread. The importance of these locks is that they provide security and accuracy for the context of execution through excluding mutually. Furthermore, the efficiency and accuracy of locks are dependent on hardware architecture. Bueso continued by explaining that the Linux kernel utilizes pointers with locks, an attribute of the C programming language that others such as Java and Visual Basic do not contain. The reasons for this are that the computer is aware of when to stop spinning, and as a debugging tool it allows for deadlock detection. As Bueso mentioned, previous strategies as old as 1975 conceptualized lock ownership within databases. This is useful for deciding for or against reentrant locks that usually utilize a counter field. There are multiple lock paths including Fastpath, Midpath, and Slowpath. All of these can block, the aforementioned primitives require a sleeping context for safety. These locks can be a determining factor in performance. Along with the previously mentioned information, there is a resource cost of utilizing a certain lock that is determined by the size and latency. Essentially, structure size determines CPU cache and memory resource allocation. This becomes increasingly relevant as a structure is utilized with increasing frequency. Fairness is determined by the strictness of semantics. Bueso concluded by explaining the cost of not optimizing with having initiative as greatly important.

While reading this, I thought of the Biblical Scriptures. The Bible has much to say about fairness and the cost of not caring for the resources that our blessed Father in heaven has given us. The Bible says, “The LORD God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it” (NIV, Gen 2:15). The blessing of God is for man, male and female, to properly care for God’s creation. This can be interpreted as the bestowing of a responsibility and a privilege. This has helped me understand more about how computer hardware is directly affected by software. Particularly, strictness of semantics determines the prevention or allowing of resource starvation. In my personal experience, software applications starving other parts of a user experience from correct use can be burdensome, and efficiency of thread use may prevent that.

Bibliography

BUESO, D. (2015). Scalability Techniques for Practical Synchronization Primitives. Communications Of The ACM, 58(1), 66-74. doi:10.1145/2687882

 

Excessive Autonomy or Excessive Control in the Digital Age

While reading through Egypt’s national mobile phone ethics code, I noticed some aspects that I think are pernicious. Particularly, the rules number one and fifteen. From ITP.net, “1. The mobile phone technology is considered one of the greatest technologies that emerged in the last few years to serve humanity, so do not ever use it to annoy or tease others” (Sutton 2009) and “Don’t respond to text messages or calls you receive from unknown numbers or sources because most probably they aim to swindle on you” (Sutton 2009). The idea that something as subjective as annoyance could be put an ethics code is potentially paralyzing because the annoyed are not homogeneous. Further, the idea that someone probably has nefarious plans for another because they are calling from an unknown number is self-defeating because it encourages paranoia.

When utilizing a mobile device, I consider its purpose. Today, mobile devices such as smartphones, tablet, and laptops are designed for human requirements. I wonder what those requirements are at the meta level. Jean-Paul Sartre shared his thoughts. Sartre thinking was, “Lived narratives comprise a succession of events and the responses one makes to them, and they are the basis of our identities” (Gillett, 2009, pg. 337). I think that the framework or narrative of the mind of the Messiah should be the basis of a Christian identity.

As Paul said to the Corinthians, “We demolish arguments and every pretension that sets itself up against the knowledge of God, and we take captive every thought to make it obedient to Christ” (NIV, 2 Cor 10:5). I think that this is an argument for internal thoughts more than external confrontation because the mind is what Christ sought for humanity rather than our bodies. I think that people should care about why they are utilized so that ideas like Egypt’s aforementioned code, frankly, do not propagate. When seeking safety, people are sometimes willing to give up freedom because the deluge of discomforting information overwhelms. However, I think that excessive control is as unacceptable as Sartrean identities without a true moral standard as God is.

Bibliography

Gillett, G. (2009). Intention, autonomy, and brain events. Bioethics, 23(6), 330-339 10p. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8519.2009.01726.x. Pg. 337.

Sutton, M. (2009, October 31). Egypt introduces mobile phone ethics code – – ITP.net. Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.itp.net/578306-egypt-introduces-mobile-phone-ethics-code/?tab=article

Reflections of Previous Semesters, and Thoughts on Moving Forward

Since January to August, my course schedule has been steady every week except for a couple times when there was a week break during or after the semesters, and more is here. During the Spring and Summer 2016 semesters at Regent University, I experienced an introduction to 8-week accelerated courses. They were very challenging with a promise of gaining knowledge of how I may approach various fields with Biblical thinking. In-depth studies of Christian theology was the start of my journey at Regent after transferring from a local public college. It was the first time that I had ever sat down and read the works of leaders of Christian thought throughout history from St. Anselm to Thomas Aquinas about arguments for the existence of God, and to topics such as friendship, art, and marriage from Biblically-based perspectives both from centuries in the past to our contemporaries such as Aelred of Rievaulx, St. Augustine of Hippo, and Richard J. Foster. I learned the significance of the superior quality of Biblical prophecy with research into Jesus the Christ’s life on earth. Old Testament studies further built on these understandings.

After that, I faced testing with the understanding of this Biblical foundation in the form of applied dialogues in every course from Microeconomics to Introduction to Programming, and from Making of the Christian Leader to Operating Systems. Each course required rapid integration of faith with the study of reason. With these completed, I became accustomed to this eight-week format.

After a business week and a couple weekends for a break between semesters, Fall classes began, this Monday, the 22nd. Interestingly, I enrolled in a Calculus III course for my program that is fifteen weeks in duration. I say so because the study time was estimated for about the same amount of time as the eight-week courses; there is the same study challenge as an eight-week course, but that duration is doubled. Calculus being the study of infinity is a relevant topic for the integration of the Biblical Scriptures. As one of the Psalmists wrote, “But from everlasting to everlasting the LORD’s love is with those who fear him, and his righteousness with their children’s children” (NIV, Ps 103:17). According to Andrew E. Hill and John H. Walton, the relevance of this chapter is related to the agenda of the editor of the Psalms. About what its purpose is, Hill and Walton said, “Critical discussion of God’s forgiving the sins of the nation” (Hill & Walton, 2009, p. 429). The Psalms verse and Hill and Walton stated that God Almighty grants his servants blessings of mercy that are collectively grace. This may be interpreted as the privilege of understanding His justice and infinite wisdom, though that does not mean God, himself, is understood beyond his character. Even when Immanuel walked the earth, God the Father reigned in heaven thus his character is known in the flesh, but his infinite Spirit is not fully known. I think that this may apply to Calculus III well as the concept of infinity may be known, but true infinity is not. It is an appealing dichotomy that may be studied for the purpose of growing in true faith for we all assume something as the basis for our worldviews. While this truth about humanity persists, the study of conceptual theory should continue in my view. Having said that, I have more courses this semester.

In general, my other courses are computer science topics, and they are Database Fundamentals, Ethics for Computer Science, and Distributed and Parallel Programming. Each of these eight-week courses required for my major are what interest me. In particular, the research that may equip me with a purpose-driven education is appealing, and I believe that this is the right path for me. Having said that, as these three eight-week courses are accelerated, I chose them two at a time at most. Towards the halfway completed date of the Fall semester, Database Fundamentals has completion as part of its scheduling whereas the remaining two have the beginning of their scheduled coursework for students. While this is work for me, I believe that any truths that I learn from these courses come from God, so I receive blessings then He receives glory. Therefore, my goal in this study consists of working for God Almighty.

Bibliography

Hill, A. E., & Walton, J. H. (2009). A Survey of the Old Testament (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids, MI, MI: Zondervan Pub. House.

Computer Science as a Major

Although computer Science is a relevant field because of how it has changed the way man, male and female, work, I think that it is more so relevant because of its moral implications. In explication, I can say with confidence that programming is something that I can do, and if academia is a method of weighing the scales of skill, then I can say with confidence that I am among the skilled programmers. Having said that, I think that more important than doing an assignment or a job is understanding why a task is right or wrong, morally. Furthermore, I consider the freedom of expression in understanding morality with Biblical grounding a privilege, so pursuing happiness is a process of gradual self-improvemen. In the context of morality, I think that studying computer science has potential for much good or much evil.

While programming is a single aspect of computer science that should be learned by anyone studying this field, I also think that the traditional liberal arts should be its basis. Technically speaking, it is. In particular, mathematics is closely related to computer science. Historically, computing is considered a description of the deductive logic that laymen and scholars are aware of in various respects. Further, I think that saying computer science is more than deductive logic alone is fair; it also utilizes its counterpart that is inductive reasoning. Anyone who has written a line of usable code can tell the reader that symbols are important for programming.

For example:

x = 1

This “x” is assigned the unitless value “1,” and it can be further understood as a variable in that it can change.

To continue:

y = 2
z = x + y
x = z - y.

These lines of code illustrate the point that general ideas brought together with specifics quantify as applications. Hence, the purpose of computer science is very much interleaving theory with practice. Therefore, in some ways it involves engineering, but my program at university also includes research into the science of this field. However, there are colleges and universities that categorize this field as an engineering discipline rather than a science discipline. With that made apparent, I think that what can be said about this field is that it the truths realized from utilizing this field’s theories and practices come from God. To parphrase Pslam 19:1, “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands” (NIV). The Bible is discussing all of creation comes from God. To interpret this, this is discussing that all truths come from him. In explication, I would say that in contemporary time many have the means for economic growth, but should also recognize that the best economic firms align with the social good. I assert that the morality of God has no superior. Therefore, there is no better reason for studying computer science than for the glorification of the Almighty God.