Reflections on Recursion

In the Spring 2017 term, approximately one week remains until completion. Throughout studies, this semester, I learned computer architecture, management information systems, and data structures & algorithms; and software engineering; and networks & telecommunications concepts. These courses being mandatory for my academic program are among the final courses for my Bachelor of Science in Computer Science degree. After this semester, one term remains until August graduation. In that term, my final courses in my undergraduate program shall be mobile & smart computing, discrete mathematics, network security, and linear algebra. All of the aforementioned statements may be considered as recursive (Goodrich, Tamassia, and Goldwasser, p. 190).

In some cases, undergraduate programs are limited by total years since the program started while other in periods of semesters attended, and alternatives are limited by total credits allowed for the program. In any of these cases, requirements for completion encourage initiative from students as well as faculty. The Apostle Paul shared insights about the incentives of studying by approaching various topics with a single framework. The Apostle Paul (KJV) said, “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works” (2 Tim 3:16-17).  If selected courses start soon to a semester start or session, or books are purchased similarly, then the threat of missing deadlines increases from the early engagement opportunity inverting. The growing threats might be, as I noticed, due to variations in recognition of relevant collaborative for collective goals. This might be a sort of circular logic in that there is an absence of perceived importance for deadlines because there is more time remaining, there is more time remaining because of extensions permitted, and the extensions permitted result in less relevance for deadlines. In contrast, James Rachels’ (2012) explained that cultural relativists would invite acceptance of the following: “The Greeks believed it was wrong to eat the dead, whereas the Callatians believed it was right to eat the dead. Therefore, eating the dead is neither objectively right nor objectively wrong. It is merely a matter of opinion, which varies from culture to culture” (p. 749).

Considering the cultural relativist argument, the invitation from the ‘Greeks and Callatians’ syllogism is implicit casting about the dead and the living, claiming that there is life after death in the physical world. A possible interpretation of the cultural, generations of men, women, and children may learn about the merits and faults of arguments with the comfort that there is the proverbial more that is expected. The sort of invitation to an impasse by implicit casting is essentially saying that societies may be recognized for eventually and irreducibly immutable components. Kenta Oono and Yuichi Yoshida (2016) describing a property being proportional to an irreducible character is one kind of generalization of linearity testing. Therefore, looking at study schedules in terms of irreducible start times and finish times for an academic course or program as white box testing might trend towards an unfinished academic program. Examples of this may be recognized as an additional day for every assignment missed passed a deadline, another semester for every course not passed, or an academic program not completed.  However, actively engaging in coursework day-by-day strengthens awareness of information. In agreement with Aristolean virtue, consistent study and action builds character over time thus understanding emerges. Even in the case of an unfinished program, considering it in terms of time that is complete and reviewing fewer and fewer times until prepared for another program attempt could ready the student for a more purposeful or explicit attempt at the program. Therefore, sometimes, focusing on the details of a program can be more effective than a topical overview for evaluating measures for success.


Cahn, S. M., & Markie, P. J. (2012). Ethics: History, theory, and contemporary issues (5th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford university press.

Goodrich, Michael T.; Tamassia, Roberto; Goldwasser, Michael H.. Data Structures and Algorithms in Java, 6th Edition (Page 190). Wiley. Kindle Edition.

Oono, K., & Yoshida, Y. (2016). Testing properties of functions on finite groups. Random Structures & Algorithms, 49(3), 579-598. doi:10.1002/rsa.20639


On Easter

While this might not be the exact day of the week originally believed as Christ’s resurrection, I think that reflecting on the reason for this event might encourage working for the right reasons. Forgoing the discussion of the heathen origins of the Easter bunny and the fertility cults associated with it, this comment is about the Biblical story of the resurrection of Jesus Christ. Technology might maximize happiness considered as pleasure in the short term as one usual result of civilization advancing technologically is replacing previous media. However, if structured by economic self-interest alone, user experiences will probably be perceived primarily as discordant rather than recognized as guided by a planned narrative. If recognized as rather lead in some way such as by a particular philosophy such as the Hegelian concept of a world spirit (8-Bit Philosophy), or Biblical theology, then work might be perceived beyond the importance of the self. In the case of Biblical theology, I think that Christ died for his friends so that his responsibility of fulfilling the law was accomplished because being the God-man, the everlasting Father gets the glory thus Christ gets the glory. However, being a man, Christ participated in lowly service so that man, both male and female, could recognize the significance of life beyond the self. Therefore, in Christ’s humility, giving God glory conquered sin thus man may live. This is the start of another week, and six of eight in my Spring term. In the case of my academic program, I should advance my projects in courses by considering the ethical significance of networks and telecommunications systems, software engineering solutions, and data structures & algorithms for more than what affects a single type of user.


8-Bit Philosophy. (2014, July 20). Will History END? – 8-Bit Philosophy [Video file]. Retrieved from

Faith, Honor, and Tradition

Samuel, a Hebrew Israelite, expressed a lesson in ancient times about faith. The first book of Samuel (KJV) says, “And Samuel said, Hath the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams” (15:22). A possible interpretation of this is that a chosen people acknowledging the right purpose requires accepting that ritual is not the purpose, but rather the practice. This can be applied to those granted privileges from being selected for membership to a group based on academic merit, leadership potential, community service, and likelihood for future career success. With such criteria each being a basis for inclusion to a group, an honor society might be deduced. In contemporary times, when man works towards a goal, sometimes recognition is sought for career or personal advancements. In my experience, focusing on the stylishness and how fashionable an activity essentially has risks that provide opportunity for aesthetic beauty and refinement of a personal pathos. Further, a styled pathos with ethics and logic can show the merits of an activity. However, there are also threats from respecting the customized style of man or the traditions of man more than building traditions based on faith that is beyond the finite. Therefore, I think that honor is earned, but faith is gained through study. When considering the variety of faiths that people in the United States have as a pluralistic civilization, sometimes honoring how something feels like a good thing can help in building networks. Even so, building networks for future stability might require doing something even if there are perceptions that contradict those goals. The common saying “go with your gut” is similar in context and applications; relying on the physical world for actions comes with risks. The same may be said with having faith in the supernatural. That said, the supernatural proposing more than what man may consider, alone, is a structure for getting things done beyond an isolated part of history. Therefore, honor rather built in a teleological sense might extend the benefits of an ethic to morally significant events.

For example, consider doing business with a hotel manager, who for the purpose of this discussion, will be renamed Alice R. The reader may seek a hotel room for a future event, but there is an error in the process of booking it. When seeking a resolution to this, the reader could call and express a disregard for the feelings of Alice and the reputation of the hotel that she represents. However, there might be a notion of honor in the context of horizontal honor while the reader may work for another company or study with an alternative faith. However, in this situation, the request from the reader is treated with disrespect by Alice for possible reasons such as not studying the importance of respecting others, or perhaps forgetting about it. Therefore, Alice does a disservice to herself by caring more about vain works than building a relationship with a paying client that might extend to future business opportunities. As a result, the reader would be disrespected in the short term, but there are substitutes for businesses with activities that aggregate to trending company policies in Alice’s industry. Therefore, a substitute for tradition is right thinking. In exposition, business trends building up those who conserve what is respectable is probably more sustainable than how organizational leadership would progress. By focusing on political motivations at the cost of customer loyalty, company advancements are probably reduced.

Character is Growth

In my view, the goal of growth is character, and in the Platonic sense of forms, but not aligned with Platonic morality, the form of growth is a positive transformation in flux. The reader may inquire what is positive, and this writer would say that doing the right action even if it does not result in the best outcomes is positive in a deontological sense. Therefore, the views of this writer differ from the Greek form of character in that they support deontology, and they are also that of a born again Christian. N.T. Wright shares insights related to the kind of character that Aristotle believed all should aspire to in life in the form of dedicated behavior transformation. N.T. Wright said, “Sooner or later, you’ll be acting naturally. Second nature. That’s how virtue works” (Wright, 2010, pg. 262). Wright argued that the Christian theory of virtue is, to paraphrase, “to be learned” (pg. 223). Moreover, character in the Christian worldview or belief is the development of the God’s royal priesthood, prophet kings rather than Platonic philosopher kings. Wright’s distinction was between the theological view of character that Christians should aspire to and the prior Greek view of repeated cultivation of strengths.

N.T. Wright asserted that character transforms by a process of steps. Wright argued, “First, you have to aim at the right goal. Second, you have to figure out the steps you need to take to get to that goal. Third, those steps have to become habitual, a matter of second nature” (Wright, 2010, p. 29). Therefore, it is the view of this writer that the goal of character transformation is a consistent process of behavior. This is in agreement with Wright’s view on teleos, the goal of humanity in the world after Christ lived on earth.

In my view, the opposition of this position may be that humanity has the autonomy to decide whatever it wants in a Sartrean form of identities, that humanity is simply the result of behaviors. However, this argument excludes the morality of behavior transformation in favor of the concept of free will. Without morality, behavior alteration can be described as a story foregoing structure in that people may behave in life with certain views about humanity and the world, but this view lacks the understanding of human reason as necessary, though not sufficient to be aware of true duty. Andy Crouch shares this position in relation to cultural behaviors. To paraphrase, Crouch stated, “culture is not finally about us, but about God” (Crouch, 2008, p. 13). Therefore, starting with faith will lead to understanding of objective morals in an Anselmian sense.

During the process of leadership, students ought to consider those who came before as stated in the Biblical Scriptures as the Kouzes and Posner model asserts. An anonymous writer wrote, “Remember your leaders, who spoke the word of God to you. Consider the outcome of their way of life and imitate their faith” (NIV, Heb: 13:7). Step one of the Kouzes and Posner model consists of “Model the Way” (Kouzes, Posner, 2004, p.38), and my understanding of that begins with the formation of a personal stance that agrees with the shared values of others. In a Christian context, this likely forgoes the corruption of Scripture that those who believe in God should worship other gods, breaking Mosaic law; rather that leaders may share the love of liberty with fellow United States citizens, for example, and can inspire the protection of that very same liberty. While the Christian view is that freedom comes from God, non-Christians can share in the care for liberty in promoting the freedom to have differing views without persecution by the law of the land. As Paul defined, to paraphrase, “for there is no authority except that which God has established” (Rom 13:1). Having that in mind, this writer’s view argues that character relates asymmetrically to the various consistent personal views that an individual person holds. Therefore, who the reader reflects on ultimately describes our own character when views undergo inversion.

While Joseph L. Badaracco Jr. wrote about the flexibility of a personal moral code, he asserted a critical point about receptiveness. The question Badaracco asked was, “Do I Have the Courage to Reconsider?” (Badaracco, 2006, p. 45). By observing Okonkwo, Badaracco defines moral flexibility as the ability to persevere through tumultuous moral dilemmas, reflect on personal failures, respond to ethical surprises, and improve personal conviction. In essence, there may be the thought that it conflicts with the Christian view of the Kouzes and Posner modeling of the way in that Jesus the Christ gave a warning of judgment. The Christ spoke, “Do not judge, or you too will be judged” (Mat 7:1), there may, therefore, be a common view that argues all judgment should cease, but to stop all practice of considering decisions probably contrasts Jesus’ purpose in saying that. A way of interpreting this is that those seeking to learn from others should be willing to allow others to reflect on them correctly. As the Kouzes and Posner model asserts that of the Christian worldview, which considers the Christ as an authority on morality, they probably considered this to a certain extent. Furthermore, Badaracco’s reflection on Okonkwo includes the intention of others reading Badaracco’s views thus he willingly submitted to judgment, himself. Therefore, there should be no tension between the Kouzes and Posner model and Badaracco’s views on moral flexibility.

It follows that there should be flexibility in the reader’s moral code. When speaking of flexibility, this writer views that there should be, in the economic sense, substitutes for consideration with respect to the objective morals of God. For example, when King Solomon heard a dispute between two prostitutes in 1 Kings 3, he considered the substitute for the first female’s argument in the form of the second female’s argument. The lying prostitute had an inflexible moral code in that she willingly accepted the death of her own would-be baby divided by a sword in favor of the argument that she would have any portion of the baby only for herself after demanding to retain a relationship with the baby. This directly contradicts her supposed motherly behavior. Differently, the true mother had a flexible moral code, willing to lose her baby’s guardianship to save her baby’s life. This reflected King Solomon’s true intention thus the mother and baby reunited. In the Biblical context, flexibility in moral code can be the defining trait of a person’s life thus character is a goal in flux.


Badaracco, J. L. (2006). Questions of character: Illuminating the heart of leadership through literature. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.

Crouch, A. (2008). Culture making: Recovering Our Creative Calling. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Books.

Kouzes, J. M., Posner, B. Z., & Kouzes, J. M. (2004). Christian Reflections on The Leadership Challenge. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Wright, N. T. (2010). After you believe: Why Christian Character Matters. New York, NY: HarperOne.


The Interpretation of Old Testament Prophecy in the New Testament

During the early formation of Christianity, the writers of the New Testament considered the Biblical Scriptures of the Old Testament in order to understand the significance of Jesus Christ. As a Christian, this writer holds the view that Jesus Christ is the son of the Most High God of the Old Testament of the Bible thus this paper shall reflect that. There are contrasting views about whether or not the New Testament fulfills Old Testament prophecy, and this writer shall seek to clarify an interpretation that is most likely as plausible both with the exegetical understanding of the Old and New Testament writers, and the hermeneutics of personal interpretation. Further, contemporary reflection will suggest the relevance of studying the Biblical Scriptures as we may understand them with the now available scientific process of evaluation. This paper examines various research by scholars throughout history to understand the merit of New Testament interpretation of Old Testament prophecy.

Prophecy in the Old Testament

About the future, the Old Testament has much to say, and among the many prophecies, there are many verses about the future messiah of Israel. The reader may wonder what the messiah is. In the Hebrew Bible, Isaiah says that “Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign: The virgin will conceive and give birth to a son, and will call him Immanuel” (NIV, Isa 7:14). Immanuel means “God with Us” (Gundry 2012, pg. 197). Further description of the messiah is in Isaiah 9:6-7. These were saying that the Lord would show humanity a true savior of his people with specific signs, and furthermore, there would be a general narrative fulfilled.

For Old Testament Jews, prophecy of the messiah was that he would be a sacrifice for sin (Isa 53:5-12), he would be an aforementioned virgin (Isa 7:14), and perhaps that he would be reborn from the dead (Psa 16:10). Together, these three parts of the Old Testament are collectively a message stating that the messiah would be an extraordinary person who ultimately does what other ancient religions viewed as not possible in the form of resurrection. Robert H. Gundry shared insights into the religion of ancient Egypt. Gundry said, “When the fourteen pieces of the dismembered corpse of Osiris were reassembled, for example, he became the king of the dead in the underworld” (Gundry, 2012, pg. 70). The ancient Egyptians believed that the most that could transpire after death is a transition to the another world that is not becoming born again but rather confirming the utter finality of death as a state of being from which no one may return.

In contrast, according to R. L. Routledge, the Old Testament does have some information about resurrection. Routledge said, “It is a common view among scholars that the idea of resurrection was a relatively late development in Old Testament theology—found in the Old Testament only in Daniel 12:1-3, which is generally dated in the second century BC” (Routledge, 2008, pg. 23). Routledge’s comment is regarding the passage in Daniel related to the end times, when “Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt” (Dan 12:2). The understanding of this writer is that the passage from the book of Daniel expresses a resurrection from death. G. Goswell shared insights about the meaning of sleep in Daniel 12:2. Goswell asserted, “It is plain that the reference to ‘sleep’ in Dan 12:2 is a metaphor for death (cf. 1 Sam 28:15; Ps 13:3 [Heb 40; Jer 59:39, 57; Job 3:13, 14:12; 1 En. 90:9-10” (Goswell, 2013, pg. 149).

While this is approved by the scholarly community, an alternative view on the meaning of sleep in Dan 12:2 was proposed by C.E. Armerding. Armerding wrote in a periodical titled Asleep in the dust (1964), to paraphrase, “The translators of the Septuagint evidently believed that katheudo gave the sense of the word yashen (sleep) in Daniel 12:2, rather than the word koimao (death)” (Armerding, 1964, pg. 156). However, modern analysis of ancient texts has resulted in the New International Version that states, to paraphrase, “or I will sleep in death” (Psa 13:3). This can be cross-referenced with Isaiah 26:19 in, to paraphrase, “But your dead will live, LORD; their bodies will rise—let those who dwell in the dust wake up and shout for joy” (Isa 26:19). Therefore, it is likely that the original text in Daniel 12 meant to sleep in death, rather than to sleep and stay alive as the Greek Septuagint argues. Theologically, the ancient Israelites were seeking a messiah who would be the basis of an eschatology for realized hope in life rather than a final death, sheol.

Interpretation in the New Testament

When the New Testament writers formed their theology, they utilized hermeneutical understandings of Old Testament prophecy in order to process the events of Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. Shirley Jackson Case explained the methodology that they enacted was not strictly logical. Case said, “But the New Testament writers and their readers, rigid logic was not a necessity. They were moved by suggestions, figures, types, analogies, allegories” (Case, 1911, pg. 100-101). Case was saying that both the New Testament writers and readers in the early Christian churches interpreted Christ’s personhood and divinity as characteristically unexpected. Therefore, Immanuel’s statement about law requires understanding that comes with faith that leads to reason.

Within the Bible, there is the verse, “Do not think that I have come to abolish the Law or the Prophets; I have not come to abolish them but to fulfill them” (Mat 5:17). One thousand years ago, Anselm, the Archbishop of Canterbury, said the famous phrase, “’credo ut intelligam’” (Cessario, 1990, pg. 209). This means having faith to understand. It is this writer’s view that St. Anselm and the early Christians were in agreement about the interpretation of the Old Testament related to Jesus Christ because of the fact that Jesus Christ lived on earth during history. N.T. Wright shares what the first-century world was probably like for the average Jewish person. N.T. Wright said, “It was never envisaged that one person might receive “the resurrection” while the rest of history continued unchecked” (Borg, Wright, 1999). While this is argued, so too is likely that there were many aspects of the messiah that were expected of him on his arrival that occurred, such as his triumphal arrival on an unridden donkey recorded in all four Gospels (Mat 21:1-11, Lu 19:28-44, Joh 12:12-19).

The sight of the lowly Christ on a donkey entering Jerusalem, for example, perfectly matches Zechariah 9:9. Having said that, there were other aspects of Old Testament culture that were relevant to its interpretation, and Samuel E. Balentine shared information about them. Balentine said, “For this purpose three sources are of primary importance: the rabbis, Philo, and Qumran” (Balentine, 1981, pg. 48). According to Balentine, beyond the Old Testament, extra-Biblical aspects of intertestamental culture was involved in the formation of New Testament theology. The inverse of this can be hermeneutically understood as the Old Testament Scriptures thus not being isolated to one part of culture. As rabbis who were “ritualistic” (Gundry, 2012, pg. 86), Philo’s combination of “Judaism and Greek philosophy” (pg. 91), and Essenes who “produced the Dead Sea Scroll from Qumran” (pg. 30), it is thus that the interpretation of the Old Testament came from a variety of backgrounds, which were both Jewish and Gentile, in order to understand how the messiah was someone who was punished, died and rose again of all the possible outcomes.

Conclusions and Contemporary Reflection

In the New Testament, there is the realization of Old Testament proposals and assertions about revival. Ervin Budiselić asserted that the Old Testament concept of revival is present in the New Testament. Budiselić supported, “We should not seek to experience revival without anticipating true reformation” (Budiselić, 2014, pg. 46). This is saying that revival leads to what could be correctly described as an improvement. Biblically speaking, this is what Jesus Christ intended for the God’s people when he fulfilled the Mosaic law. As a result, the law has been perfected. Thematically, the New Testament tells a story of new beginnings without forgetting the past. On the contrary to forgetting the past, it has utilized it to thoroughly supplant itself in the world as a source of moral guidance that goes even further beyond the law to describe a kind of grace that could be said to delineate the purpose of the third commandment.

The Bible says, “Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy” (Exo 20:8). After the bondage of the Hebrews in Egypt essentially considered beasts of labor, the single day of rest changed humanity from that to sanctified creatures. In the same way, the act of grace by Jesus Christ fulfills this commandment’s full purpose by giving humanity, which is, to paraphrase, “formed from the dust of the earth” (Gen 2:7), a piece of divinity in the form of the Holy Spirit. Christ’s perfect law is God’s kingdom on earth, and God’s dwelling place is the body of human being. As Paul said to the Corinthians, to paraphrase, “your bodies are temples of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God” (1 Cor 6:19). It follows that in addition to the narrative of the Biblical Scriptures saying that the Jews’ messiah shall come and do as Old Testament prophecy says he would, New Testament reformation shows that the meta-narrative of the Biblical Scriptures is that God intends for his people to receive blessings exceedingly.

The Bible’s meta-narrative can be said to represent a kind of epistemology about the world based on faith. Jacobus W. Gericke said that the writings of the Old Testament are philosophically interesting because of this. Gericke (2013) asserted:

For whilst the Old Testament is not philosophical in nature, the prophecies in the world in the text contain nascent metaphysical assumptions about the nature of divine foreknowledge, the deity’s relation to time and human freedom, whether the authors were aware of holding these or not. (pg. 2)

For the reader who studies the Biblical Scriptures, it is this writer’s assertion that understanding the exegetical assumptions of the writers of the Old Testament and the New Testament can assist in apprehending, to paraphrase, the meaning of Paul’s statement, “All Scripture is God-breathed” (2 Tim 3:16). Therefore, it makes sense to assert that the New Testament interpreters were aware of assumptions as the world equally similar to that of Old Testament prophesiers as the message of the Biblical Scriptures seems consistent.


Armerding, C. E. (1964). Asleep in the dust. Bibliotheca Sacra, 121(482), 153-158.

Balentine, S. E. (1981). The interpretation of the Old Testament in the New Testament. Southwestern Journal Of Theology, 23(2), 41-57.

Borg, M. J., & Wright, N. T. (1999). The meaning of Jesus: Two visions. San Francisco, CA: Harper.

Budiselić, E. (2014). The Old Testament Concept of Revival within the New Testament. Kairos: Evangelical Journal Of Theology, 8(1), 45-74.

Case, S. J.. (1911). The New Testament Writers’ Interpretation of the Old Testament. The Biblical World, 38(2), 92–102. Retrieved from

Cessario, R. (1990). The Godly Image: Christ and Salvation in Catholic Thought from St. Anselm to Aquinas (Vol. 6). St Bede’s Publications.

Goswell, G. (2013). Resurrection in the Book of Daniel. Restoration Quarterly, 55(3), 139-151.

Gericke, J. W. (2013). Why Old Testament prophecy is philosophically interesting. Hervormde Teologiese Studies, 69(1), 1-6. doi:10.4102/hts.v69i1.1197

Gundry, R. H. (2012). A Survey of the New Testament (5th ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan. Pg.197

Routledge, R. L. (2008). Death and Afterlife in the Old Testament. Journal Of European Baptist Studies, 9(1), 22-39.


Perceptions on Reflections

While reading a book by Clifford A. Pickover called The Physics Devotional, a quote reminded me of the importance of reflecting. Pickover wrote about something that Arnold Arons said about physics. Of Arons, Pickover (2015) wrote:

There is a kind of symbolic relationship here between law and theory. A theory becomes more and more respected and powerful the more phenomena that can be derived from it, and the law describing these phenomena becomes more meaningful and useful if it can be made part of a theory. Thus, Newton’s theory of universal gravitation gained greatly in stature because it enabled one to derive the laws that govern the moon’s motion, known by empirical rules since the days of the Babylonian observers. (p. 8)

Within computer science, for instance, the programmer or software developer goes through the process of designing, creating, testing, and debugging a software or system application. This is how a program becomes made. However, the question of why a program does good or bad is commonly expressed with the notion that truth is a matter of pleasure; that is supposed as a fine replacement for the objective balance. For reference, the United States of America, which produces litigation, confirms that scientifically analytical laws follow propositions. Bo Brinkman and Alton F. Sanders distributed information about the classical popularizer of pleasure as truth, John Stuart Mill. Brinkman and Sanders (2013) claimed, “Laws governing free speech in the United States today are generally consistent with Mill’s view. However, the issue of free speech is not settled” (p. 245). For computer science solutions, optimizing code might not always be the simplest or most effective way for building a successful product, but documentation can guide that process. Therefore, the reader may look to an objective source of ethical documentation about people for an understanding of why a particular software is good or bad.

Among scholars, theology is considered the queen of the sciences; it is a responsibility and a gift. The Book of James (KJV) says, “My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with respect of persons” (2:1). This is a prohibition on favoritism for an ethic of fairness for the Jew and the Gentile. Thomas Aquinas theological first way of proving a Creator supports this. Ellen T. Charry wrote that Aquinas (2000) explained,

For it is only when acted upon by the first cause that the intermediate causes will produce the change: if the hand does not move the stick, the stick will not move anything else. Hence one is bound to arrive at some first cause of change not itself being changed by anything, and this is what everybody understands by God. (p. 32)

Thomas Aquinas perceived that the initial state is the origin of the continuum. With a final point, Archimedes would call this a summation. Regardless of the origin, considering the final point as the end of history, Hegel (1956) argued that “The History of the world is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom” (p. 19). The Bible challenges that by conserving a story throughout history. The Almighty, spoken on behalf of by the prophet Isaiah (KJV), said, “And who, as I, shall call, and shall declare it, and set it in order for me, since I appointed the ancient people? And the things that are coming, and shall come, let them shew unto them” (Is 44:7). The progress that Hegel mentioned leaves behind truths perceived as irrational for the evolution of validity. Thus, when documenting computer applications, agreement with Hegel would require abandoning whatever causes errors in usefulness according to rationality. However, mainstream physicists who discuss quantum mechanics usually agree that human reason is not always sufficient for understanding the world. The Nazis, for example, were rational in that they had a goal in mind that they thought would be useful to them: creating a master race by destroying the Jews. Therefore, when Arons mentioned that law may be derived from theory, this is in agreement with the mathematical sciences, but it did not embed the assumptions into human perception; empirical observations were considered a stepping stone towards the highest understanding. Therefore, documentation should be valued for what it can help beyond the code. Further, analytically oriented computer scientists should be raised up by reflecting on the big picture when developing applications because doing so provides more contextual understanding.

In the coming weeks, I will work on more courses related to computer science and information systems. That said, there are alternative worldviews in this pluralistic nation that I live among as an American. While that is the case, I do think that I should stay focused on what is straight ahead that is reckoned for me. There may be chronological parameters that allow for people meeting in the middle. Seeking true exegesis for studying the perceptions of others is what I think is the way. Thus, I hope that my comments provide such opportunities over time.


Brinkman, W. J., & Sanders, A. F. (2013). Ethics in a Computing Culture. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Charry, E. T., & Aquinas, T. (2000). Inquiring after God by Means of Scientific Study. In Inquiring after God: Classic and Contemporary readings (p. 32). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Hegel, G. W. (1956). The Philosophy of History.

Pickover, C. A. (2015). The Physics Devotional: Celebrating the Wisdom and Beauty of Physics.

An Application of Epistemic Proof for the Teleological View

Today, the Christian Broadcasting Network reported about a perceived issue related to a comment that Republican Party Chairman, Reince Priebus, said about President-elect Donald Trump. Priebus (2016) asserted, “Over two millennia ago, a new hope was born into the world, a Savior who would offer the promise of salvation to all mankind. Just as the three wise men did on that night, this Christmas heralds a time to celebrate the good news of a new King” (CBN News). Some became enraged and claimed the press release stated by Priebus as about Trump (2016). As we will see, there are competing views related to this situation that may be the right framework for understanding the Biblical Scriptures followed then by other messages in turn. In relation to the exegetical process of accepting data, hermeneutics for informative purposes, and applying it to contemporary issues, there are two opposing approaches to this. One approach that many claim is identifying a single piece of the Bible as representative of the entire Bible, or microscopic view. For example, people with the microscopic view and perhaps the most recent wave of feminist theology in contemporary times might say that the Apostle Paul’s first Epistle to Timothy contains a sexist theme. The Apostle Paul (KJV) said, “But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence” (1 Tim 2:12). In and of itself, this Scriptural verse shows the fallen state of man, male and female; there is inequality in education thus in every level of society. However, the Biblical Scriptures are a collection of books with collective truth that is relevant to this verse. One such verse is the Psalm (KJV), “The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes” (19:8). This may be cross-referenced with the Psalm, “The words of the LORD are pure words; As silver tried in a furnace on the earth, refined seven times” (12:6).

For the first mentioned Psalm, the reader might relate to the sun coming up day after day, increasing the health of the person who is exposed to it and waking him up. Similarly, the second mentioned Psalm describes that the reality of the Word of the Most High is shown through understanding the history of these messages that is the precedent for each message. When looking at the second chapter, verse 12 of Paul’s Epistle to Timothy, we may thus look to previous Biblical Scriptures. For example, Esther the queen informed the king Ahasuerus about the plot that advisor to the king, Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, had for destroying the Jews because Mordecai, another Jew, did not treat Haman with reverence because the faith of Israel, despite being dispersed, was not fully assimilated into other societies (Est 3:1-6, 7:1-6). The Matthew Henry Commentary states, “The religion of a Jew forbade him to give honours to any mortal man which savoured of idolatry, especially to so wicked a man as Haman” (Henry). The precept that Esther, a woman, taught a man, and in doing so preserved the Most High’s children by implicitly doing His work contradicts the microscopic view, but not Paul’s Epistle.

In contemporary Christian theology on marriage, Richard J. Foster shared insights. Foster said, “Marriage that is Christian is covenantal. A covenant is a promise – a pledge of love, loyalty, and faithfulness. A covenant involves continuity – the sense of a common future to look forward to and a history to look back on together” (Charry, 2000, p. 148). Therefore, man and woman work together with neither lording himself or herself over the other. The concept of covenant may be derived from this and applied to contemporary issues. This is the teleological view for approaching the Biblical Scriptures integrated into the exegetical process. Thus, the reader may look to other aspects of history related to Trump’s situation so that a true understanding may be perceived. In recent times, a common disagreement that is not so new is about honoring the birth of Christ on a single day of the Gregorian calendar year. Therefore, when John Weaver, a leading aide to Ohio Governor John Kasich expressed hatred towards this comment (CBN News), I think that this was interpreted as a man lording himself over the people who he is elected for so that he may serve. However, Gregg Birnbaum and Kevin Liptak reported on CNN that Trump recently spoke about reasserting the relevance of December the twenty-fifth as a special day for the world and Christianity should be celebrated rather than judged (CNN, 2016). Therefore, in accepting historical details as a union of intervals, interpreting them for personal understanding, and applying them to contemporary issues, the teleological view of reality is probably more tenable than the microscopic view might first appear.


Birnbaum, G., Liptak, K., & CNN. (2016, June 25). Trump, fist raised, wishes all a Merry Christmas – Retrieved from

Charry, E. T. (2000). Inquiring after God: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Oxford, MA: Blackwell.

CBN News. (2016, December 26). RNC Press Release On Christ’s Birth Offends Top Political Aide | Retrieved from

Henry, M. (n.d.). Esther 3:6 Commentaries. Retrieved from