Data Privacy and Protections

For the ongoing discussion of data theory and applications, Science News, an organization that reports research of various subjects, released an article called Theoretical computer science provides answers to data privacy problem. For the purpose of this article, concepts related to the handling of data are discussed, and their applications. Specifically, the purposes that relate data to people are recognizable. Science News (2015) said, “Some data may be trivial, but in many cases, data are deeply personal. They can even influence our insurance premiums or the price we pay for a product online.” An example of a working system model with privacy worked with was reported by Science News as researched by a professor of computer science in Harvard University and former director of the Center of Research on Computation and Society, Salil Vadhan (2015). Described as “differential privacy” (2015), this concept protects data with approximations. With this premise, a series of queries may provide an identifiable pattern; a summation may be reckoned. The calculus of this approximation would then be equivalent to an integral that will produce an exact result. Science News reported that this is defended against by good judgment that would be increasing randomization and taking full care in comparing characteristics across queries (2015). This assessment seems vague because what people view as good judgment depends on initial assumptions about reality.

Although rule utilitarianism, for example, is discussed in contemporary times as a serious ethical concept, there is debate about its efficacy. Bo Brinkman and Alton F. Sanders describe rule utilitarianism. Brinkman and Sanders (2013) said, “In rule utilitarianism, we select a set of rules, and each act is evaluated as to whether it conforms to them” (p. 16). In this case, a rule utilitarian approach might be that the supposedly good judgment of differential privacy is people who may have access will have the keys to accurate information retrieval, and people with incorrect keys will get incorrect values returned to them. In the late 20th century AD, Winslett, et al. (1994) supposed a similar proposal. Winslett et al. (1994) said, “We believe that many of the MLS problems can be resolved by directly addressing the question of what an MLS database means, rather than making syntactic adjustments to avoid semantic problems” (p. 627). This proposal essentially asserted that lying is an effective form of confidentiality for cyber security. Although the supposed truth of relative semantics makes sense for the access key holders for secret information in short term, this causes a failure of integrity. For a historical account, the Apostle Paul discussed the Hebrew Bible. Paul (KJV) said, “As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one:” (Rom 3:10). This was the view before grace.

As Joachim Biskup showed, lying is not the correct approach. Biskup (2000) said, “The initial belief and the first k-1 answers (lies) would reveal the last secret psi_k.” This is a mathematical statement that reflects a Biblical prophecy. The Son of Man (KJV) said, “Therefore whatsoever ye have spoken in darkness shall be heard in the light; and that which ye have spoken in the ear in closets shall be proclaimed upon the housetops” (Lu 12:3). Therefore, when randomizing data for the purpose of producing lies or untrue information for those who seek unauthorized access to data, I think that more secure concepts require something other than this sort of concept because true information will eventually be revealed, though that may be understood as defense in depth with protections being more understood as unapproachable like the image that a security guard for a crucial represents to attackers, defenders, and other vulnerable groups. Similarly, an available mathematical problem that computers would have difficulty solving would serve as a known defense that would be well defensible in contemporary times.

References

Biskup, J. (2000). For unknown secrecies refusal is better than lying. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 33(1), 1-23. doi:10.1016/S0169-023X(99)00043-9

Brinkman, W. J., & Sanders, A. F. (2013). Ethics in a Computing Culture. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Marianne Winslett, Kenneth Smith, and Xiaolei Qian. 1994. Formal query languages for secure relational databases. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 19, 4 (December 1994), 626-662. DOI=http://0-dx.doi.org.library.regent.edu/10.1145/195664.195675

National Science Foundation. (2015, October 7). Theoretical computer science provides answers to data privacy problem: New tools allow researchers to share and study sensitive data safely by applying ‘differential privacy’. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 25, 2016 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151007144933.htm

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Conceptualizing Worldview and Expressing the Biblical Worldview

Throughout history, various perspectives which could be called worldviews have been formed, and with the life of Jesus Christ, the Biblical worldview has as well thus this paper is seeking their delineation. Eugene Webb, Professor Emeritus in the University of Washington Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies, asserts what he views as an essential part of humanity. Eugene Webb states, “No human being lives without a worldview, but comparatively few ever give much thought to what worldviews are, how they come into being, how they change, and how they are held” (Webb, 2009, Pg. 1). Another way of saying this is that all of humanity perseveres with a worldview. This essay is an inquiry into what the Greeks called οὐσία, which is translated to English as being or, as an adjective, factual in the state of the things as they are. Therefore, this is to deduce what a state of being is and what can be defined as any true Christian fact, if any. The process of analyzing these views is something which is a substantial effort and it is possible that all details fundamental to them may not be described in this essay which shall be addressed in the form of implications for the reader to apprehend through induction. Furthermore, the outcome of this essay is not to express what a conceptual worldview and the Biblical worldview should be, normative proposals, but rather to express what they are, descriptively. It is thus this writer’s contention that the concepts of worldview and the Biblical worldview can be bounded.

To understand a word, apprehending its etymological roots can be worthwhile. The research of James W. Underhill about the origin of the meaning of worldview shows insight. James W. Underhill says that the German word “Weltanschauung” (Underhill, 2009, Pg. 54) is associated with the idea of “’function[ing] as an idea of pure reason to bring the totality of human experience into the unity of the world-whole, or Weltganz’” (Underhill, 2009, Pg. 54). The converse of this is the totality of Weltganz, another German word, into the unity of the human experience. This writer asks if this is a sound relation with some skepticism. If it is, then it a functional idea about which the human experience and the world-whole and sets of values can be input to output information relevant about the entirety of existence. However, looking at the history of the world and its state of not knowing everything in existence, even that of human experience, it is clear to this writer that this term could be, at best, viewed as a conceptual ideal rather than the relationship between humanity and the world in fact or as de facto situation. Therefore, at the very least, worldview is not a relationship between human experience and a unified understanding of the world. Having stated this, it follows that the Christian worldview could be inquired about for the sake of understanding its characteristics.

At this point in this discussion, the word Christian in Christian worldview can be seen as a characteristic of worldview, being an adjective. However, this writer asks if this grammatical explanation is a sufficient one. To reflect, the apostle Paul states something worthwhile to the Romans. Paul says, “And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God” (Rom 12: 2 King James Version). This writer holds the view that exegetically, this is to say that if there is a single Christian worldview it is thus not a characteristic of the world hence it forgoes that of attribution to worldview in its true form. Therefore, a more reasonable identification of this understanding should be described as the worldview of Christianity.

During Paul’s first epistle to the Corinthians, he writes about the natural state of Christ in the world. Paul states to the Corinthians, “And if one member suffers, all the members suffer with it; if one member is honored, all the members rejoice with it. Now if you are Christ’s body, and individually members of it” (1 Cor 12: 26-27 King James Version). A view of this writer is to express that the humanity of Christianity is connected by Christ. Therefore, the worldview of Christianity is hierarchically subordinate to him as if Christ is the metaphorical roots of a tree or a mainframe system of a computer network. It follows that the prior identification of worldview as not that of a relation should be compared to the Christian worldview. Interestingly, all of humanity is linked with Jesus, collectively, and Jesus is linked with all of humanity by Paul’s assertion.

After contemplation, David Mathis states that Christ is the son of the unifier of the gospel. David Mathis states, “And, mark this, no one cares more for her unity of his church around her Savior, his own Son, than God himself.” (Piper, Mathis, Warren, 2011, Pg. 11). This is to say that the will of Christ is a characteristic of God, yet the Holy Spirit is a third person thus the Triune God would necessarily be a collective relationship with all of humanity. It cannot be humanity with Jesus and God, and the Holy Spirit, separately, and be a relation. Therefore, at the very least, a worldview without the collective of humanity considered as a single idea with a body of knowledge as the Christian worldview is not a relation. It follows that it cannot be functional. This is to say that while a worldview and the Christian worldview, so to speak, may be concepts that human recognize without a true form of apprehension, at least we may be aware of what these concepts are not.

Bibliography

Piper, J., Mathis, D., & Warren, R. (2011). Thinking, Loving, Doing. Wheaton, IL: Crossway. Pg. 11

The Holy Bible: King James Version. (2004). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. Cor 12: 26-27.

The Holy Bible: King James Version. (2004). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson. Rom 12: 2.

Underhill, J. W. (2009). Humboldt, Worldview and Language. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Pg. 54.

Webb, E. (2009). Worldview and Mind: Religious Thought and Psychological Development. Columbia: University of Missouri Press. Pg. 1