Data Privacy and Protections

For the ongoing discussion of data theory and applications, Science News, an organization that reports research of various subjects, released an article called Theoretical computer science provides answers to data privacy problem. For the purpose of this article, concepts related to the handling of data are discussed, and their applications. Specifically, the purposes that relate data to people are recognizable. Science News (2015) said, “Some data may be trivial, but in many cases, data are deeply personal. They can even influence our insurance premiums or the price we pay for a product online.” An example of a working system model with privacy worked with was reported by Science News as researched by a professor of computer science in Harvard University and former director of the Center of Research on Computation and Society, Salil Vadhan (2015). Described as “differential privacy” (2015), this concept protects data with approximations. With this premise, a series of queries may provide an identifiable pattern; a summation may be reckoned. The calculus of this approximation would then be equivalent to an integral that will produce an exact result. Science News reported that this is defended against by good judgment that would be increasing randomization and taking full care in comparing characteristics across queries (2015). This assessment seems vague because what people view as good judgment depends on initial assumptions about reality.

Although rule utilitarianism, for example, is discussed in contemporary times as a serious ethical concept, there is debate about its efficacy. Bo Brinkman and Alton F. Sanders describe rule utilitarianism. Brinkman and Sanders (2013) said, “In rule utilitarianism, we select a set of rules, and each act is evaluated as to whether it conforms to them” (p. 16). In this case, a rule utilitarian approach might be that the supposedly good judgment of differential privacy is people who may have access will have the keys to accurate information retrieval, and people with incorrect keys will get incorrect values returned to them. In the late 20th century AD, Winslett, et al. (1994) supposed a similar proposal. Winslett et al. (1994) said, “We believe that many of the MLS problems can be resolved by directly addressing the question of what an MLS database means, rather than making syntactic adjustments to avoid semantic problems” (p. 627). This proposal essentially asserted that lying is an effective form of confidentiality for cyber security. Although the supposed truth of relative semantics makes sense for the access key holders for secret information in short term, this causes a failure of integrity. For a historical account, the Apostle Paul discussed the Hebrew Bible. Paul (KJV) said, “As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one:” (Rom 3:10). This was the view before grace.

As Joachim Biskup showed, lying is not the correct approach. Biskup (2000) said, “The initial belief and the first k-1 answers (lies) would reveal the last secret psi_k.” This is a mathematical statement that reflects a Biblical prophecy. The Son of Man (KJV) said, “Therefore whatsoever ye have spoken in darkness shall be heard in the light; and that which ye have spoken in the ear in closets shall be proclaimed upon the housetops” (Lu 12:3). Therefore, when randomizing data for the purpose of producing lies or untrue information for those who seek unauthorized access to data, I think that more secure concepts require something other than this sort of concept because true information will eventually be revealed, though that may be understood as defense in depth with protections being more understood as unapproachable like the image that a security guard for a crucial represents to attackers, defenders, and other vulnerable groups. Similarly, an available mathematical problem that computers would have difficulty solving would serve as a known defense that would be well defensible in contemporary times.

References

Biskup, J. (2000). For unknown secrecies refusal is better than lying. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 33(1), 1-23. doi:10.1016/S0169-023X(99)00043-9

Brinkman, W. J., & Sanders, A. F. (2013). Ethics in a Computing Culture. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Marianne Winslett, Kenneth Smith, and Xiaolei Qian. 1994. Formal query languages for secure relational databases. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 19, 4 (December 1994), 626-662. DOI=http://0-dx.doi.org.library.regent.edu/10.1145/195664.195675

National Science Foundation. (2015, October 7). Theoretical computer science provides answers to data privacy problem: New tools allow researchers to share and study sensitive data safely by applying ‘differential privacy’. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 25, 2016 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151007144933.htm

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Purpose-Driven Human-Computer Interaction

Within the years past of the second millennium AD, there is a discussion about the predicted future of human-computer interaction in dialogues related to computing technology. In a fictional science fiction video game concentrating on cybernetic augmentations in society, Deus Ex: Human Revolution (Eidos Montreal, 2011), an article is given called Nano-Augmentation – Pipedream, or Theory for the Future. The fictional article in the game asserts:

In the decade to come, the enhanced beings — post humans who are our progeny– will look at the mechanical devices we rudely bolted on to our living flesh or buried inside our grey matter, and they will mock us for our crudity. They will look upon what we have made with the same curiosity, the same disinterest, as the pilot of the veetol helicopter would look upon an ox-cart. (2011)

The premise of this story is not an aberration of the world, but rather a checkpoint on the path towards human-computer interconnectivity. Ray Bradbury wrote about the slights people would perceive in an environment essentially saturated in computing technologies that surveil society. Bradbury (1953) wrote that the self-described murderer of technology said, “I’m the vanguard of the small public which is tired of the noise and being taken advantage of and pushed around and yelled at, every moment music, every moment in touch with some voice somewhere” (p. 299).  In contemporary times, the field of engineering solution discussed by a wide domain of computer science including cyber security is called The Internet of Things. A writer for the Journal of Engineering (2014) said, “Slowly shaping the market in embedded security or the testing and auditing of IoT applications prior to launch are the first steps in providing a trustworthy base: Arrayent, Hewlett-Packard, Microchip, NXP Semiconductors, Sonatype, and Wind River.” Therefore, major participants for the future of human-computer interaction consider this field relevant enough that it is invested in for the purpose of embedding computing systems into human lives, but forward presentations do not discuss the strength of the flank that ushers in the legality of human-computer interaction. Although the truth of innovation being followed by litigation may be thought of as an avoidable practice, the relevance of confronting the exponential growth of technology with the notion that the rest of its users is part of the human psyche.

Statista, an organization that provides scholarly communities with facts and statistics explained the origin of the Internet of Things (IoT). Statista stated, “In 1999, British technologist Kevin Ashton came up with the term Internet of Things (IoT) to define a network that not only connects people, but also the objects around them” (Web 1). What Kevin Ashton labeled, Ray Bradbury expressed as something that would result in slights harming people attributable to societal misconceptions about the benefits of relying on normalized science and technology without inner sanity and outward care for results that benefit the common man. The question that follows naturally depends on the historical and Biblical truth (KJV) that “That every idle word that men shall speak, they shall give account thereof in the day of judgment” (Mat 12:36). Therefore, the reader might ask what benefit is scientific understanding and technological connectivity if it does not result in the advancement of humanity in a moral sense. The notion that the Deus Ex: Human Revolution presents related to curiosity and mockery as a result of progress is a focus of this because the strength of character does not necessarily evolve, so to speak, with, what in this case may be sarcastically called, character displacement of technological adaptation. Having said that, value may be found by accepting that the big picture of scientific advancement and technological innovation is justified through correct faith applied for the common man, male and female. This is so that he may be offered a hand up and understand that the machinery that augments the person extending it will be a beautiful instance of equipping him with the mental tools for giving him an active voice in society.

References

ABI research; internet of things is cybersecurity’s next frontier, according to ABI research. (2014). Journal of Engineering, 718.

Bradbury, R. (1953). The Murderer.

Nano-Augmentation – Pipedream, or Theory for the Future [Deus Ex: Human Revolution]. Montreal, Canada: Eidos Montreal.

Web 1. Statista. (n.d.). Internet of Things – Statistics & Facts. Retrieved December 21, 2016.