Reflections on Recursion

In the Spring 2017 term, approximately one week remains until completion. Throughout studies, this semester, I learned computer architecture, management information systems, and data structures & algorithms; and software engineering; and networks & telecommunications concepts. These courses being mandatory for my academic program are among the final courses for my Bachelor of Science in Computer Science degree. After this semester, one term remains until August graduation. In that term, my final courses in my undergraduate program shall be mobile & smart computing, discrete mathematics, network security, and linear algebra. All of the aforementioned statements may be considered as recursive (Goodrich, Tamassia, and Goldwasser, p. 190).

In some cases, undergraduate programs are limited by total years since the program started while other in periods of semesters attended, and alternatives are limited by total credits allowed for the program. In any of these cases, requirements for completion encourage initiative from students as well as faculty. The Apostle Paul shared insights about the incentives of studying by approaching various topics with a single framework. The Apostle Paul (KJV) said, “All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for correction, for instruction in righteousness: That the man of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all good works” (2 Tim 3:16-17).  If selected courses start soon to a semester start or session, or books are purchased similarly, then the threat of missing deadlines increases from the early engagement opportunity inverting. The growing threats might be, as I noticed, due to variations in recognition of relevant collaborative for collective goals. This might be a sort of circular logic in that there is an absence of perceived importance for deadlines because there is more time remaining, there is more time remaining because of extensions permitted, and the extensions permitted result in less relevance for deadlines. In contrast, James Rachels’ (2012) explained that cultural relativists would invite acceptance of the following: “The Greeks believed it was wrong to eat the dead, whereas the Callatians believed it was right to eat the dead. Therefore, eating the dead is neither objectively right nor objectively wrong. It is merely a matter of opinion, which varies from culture to culture” (p. 749).

Considering the cultural relativist argument, the invitation from the ‘Greeks and Callatians’ syllogism is implicit casting about the dead and the living, claiming that there is life after death in the physical world. A possible interpretation of the cultural, generations of men, women, and children may learn about the merits and faults of arguments with the comfort that there is the proverbial more that is expected. The sort of invitation to an impasse by implicit casting is essentially saying that societies may be recognized for eventually and irreducibly immutable components. Kenta Oono and Yuichi Yoshida (2016) describing a property being proportional to an irreducible character is one kind of generalization of linearity testing. Therefore, looking at study schedules in terms of irreducible start times and finish times for an academic course or program as white box testing might trend towards an unfinished academic program. Examples of this may be recognized as an additional day for every assignment missed passed a deadline, another semester for every course not passed, or an academic program not completed.  However, actively engaging in coursework day-by-day strengthens awareness of information. In agreement with Aristolean virtue, consistent study and action builds character over time thus understanding emerges. Even in the case of an unfinished program, considering it in terms of time that is complete and reviewing fewer and fewer times until prepared for another program attempt could ready the student for a more purposeful or explicit attempt at the program. Therefore, sometimes, focusing on the details of a program can be more effective than a topical overview for evaluating measures for success.

References

Cahn, S. M., & Markie, P. J. (2012). Ethics: History, theory, and contemporary issues (5th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford university press.

Goodrich, Michael T.; Tamassia, Roberto; Goldwasser, Michael H.. Data Structures and Algorithms in Java, 6th Edition (Page 190). Wiley. Kindle Edition.

Oono, K., & Yoshida, Y. (2016). Testing properties of functions on finite groups. Random Structures & Algorithms, 49(3), 579-598. doi:10.1002/rsa.20639

 

Faith, Honor, and Tradition

Samuel, a Hebrew Israelite, expressed a lesson in ancient times about faith. The first book of Samuel (KJV) says, “And Samuel said, Hath the LORD as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the LORD? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams” (15:22). A possible interpretation of this is that a chosen people acknowledging the right purpose requires accepting that ritual is not the purpose, but rather the practice. This can be applied to those granted privileges from being selected for membership to a group based on academic merit, leadership potential, community service, and likelihood for future career success. With such criteria each being a basis for inclusion to a group, an honor society might be deduced. In contemporary times, when man works towards a goal, sometimes recognition is sought for career or personal advancements. In my experience, focusing on the stylishness and how fashionable an activity essentially has risks that provide opportunity for aesthetic beauty and refinement of a personal pathos. Further, a styled pathos with ethics and logic can show the merits of an activity. However, there are also threats from respecting the customized style of man or the traditions of man more than building traditions based on faith that is beyond the finite. Therefore, I think that honor is earned, but faith is gained through study. When considering the variety of faiths that people in the United States have as a pluralistic civilization, sometimes honoring how something feels like a good thing can help in building networks. Even so, building networks for future stability might require doing something even if there are perceptions that contradict those goals. The common saying “go with your gut” is similar in context and applications; relying on the physical world for actions comes with risks. The same may be said with having faith in the supernatural. That said, the supernatural proposing more than what man may consider, alone, is a structure for getting things done beyond an isolated part of history. Therefore, honor rather built in a teleological sense might extend the benefits of an ethic to morally significant events.

For example, consider doing business with a hotel manager, who for the purpose of this discussion, will be renamed Alice R. The reader may seek a hotel room for a future event, but there is an error in the process of booking it. When seeking a resolution to this, the reader could call and express a disregard for the feelings of Alice and the reputation of the hotel that she represents. However, there might be a notion of honor in the context of horizontal honor while the reader may work for another company or study with an alternative faith. However, in this situation, the request from the reader is treated with disrespect by Alice for possible reasons such as not studying the importance of respecting others, or perhaps forgetting about it. Therefore, Alice does a disservice to herself by caring more about vain works than building a relationship with a paying client that might extend to future business opportunities. As a result, the reader would be disrespected in the short term, but there are substitutes for businesses with activities that aggregate to trending company policies in Alice’s industry. Therefore, a substitute for tradition is right thinking. In exposition, business trends building up those who conserve what is respectable is probably more sustainable than how organizational leadership would progress. By focusing on political motivations at the cost of customer loyalty, company advancements are probably reduced.

Coordinate Systems: Inputs and Outputs

With the various coordinate systems involved in mathematical deduction such as Cartesian, Polar, Cylindrical, and Spherical, the correctness of system application depends on the applicability of human work utilizing any or all of them for morally good results. For example, when building a house, a Psalm begins with the truth that says, “Except the LORD build the house, they labour in vain that build it: except the LORD keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain” (Ps 127:1). Therefore, Rene Descartes’ famous statement may be analyzed. Descartes said: “cogito ergo sum: I think therefore I am” (Web 1). In saying this, the inventor of the Cartesian coordinate system was asserting that his mind gives him substance. I believe that more accurate is mihi virtutem Dei ergo sum: God gives me strength therefore I am. This is supported by the Biblical Scriptures. The anonymous writer (KJV) of the Book of Hebrews wrote, “For every house is builded by some man; but he that built all things is God” (3:4). The first act that the Most High did, creation, was viewed by Him as good (Ge 1:31). In following His eternally supreme standard, I think that choosing a coordinate system is therefore supported by a truly good purpose for utilizing it. Examples are Cartesian for building a contemporary rectangular home for the homeless (Pro 21:13), Cylindrical for a ship required for national defense and protecting marginalized groups (Ex 22:21-23), and Spherical for determining the shortest distance between two points on the ocean with longitude known so that demanded food suppliers perform their obligations in their appointed time (Ecc 3:1-8).

References

Web 1. (2006). cogito ergo sum. In Livingstone, E.(Ed.), The Concise Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2 Dec. 2016, from http://0-www.oxfordreference.com.library.regent.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780198614425.001.0001/acref-9780198614425-e-1295.

 

Perceptions on Reflections

While reading a book by Clifford A. Pickover called The Physics Devotional, a quote reminded me of the importance of reflecting. Pickover wrote about something that Arnold Arons said about physics. Of Arons, Pickover (2015) wrote:

There is a kind of symbolic relationship here between law and theory. A theory becomes more and more respected and powerful the more phenomena that can be derived from it, and the law describing these phenomena becomes more meaningful and useful if it can be made part of a theory. Thus, Newton’s theory of universal gravitation gained greatly in stature because it enabled one to derive the laws that govern the moon’s motion, known by empirical rules since the days of the Babylonian observers. (p. 8)

Within computer science, for instance, the programmer or software developer goes through the process of designing, creating, testing, and debugging a software or system application. This is how a program becomes made. However, the question of why a program does good or bad is commonly expressed with the notion that truth is a matter of pleasure; that is supposed as a fine replacement for the objective balance. For reference, the United States of America, which produces litigation, confirms that scientifically analytical laws follow propositions. Bo Brinkman and Alton F. Sanders distributed information about the classical popularizer of pleasure as truth, John Stuart Mill. Brinkman and Sanders (2013) claimed, “Laws governing free speech in the United States today are generally consistent with Mill’s view. However, the issue of free speech is not settled” (p. 245). For computer science solutions, optimizing code might not always be the simplest or most effective way for building a successful product, but documentation can guide that process. Therefore, the reader may look to an objective source of ethical documentation about people for an understanding of why a particular software is good or bad.

Among scholars, theology is considered the queen of the sciences; it is a responsibility and a gift. The Book of James (KJV) says, “My brethren, have not the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Lord of glory, with respect of persons” (2:1). This is a prohibition on favoritism for an ethic of fairness for the Jew and the Gentile. Thomas Aquinas theological first way of proving a Creator supports this. Ellen T. Charry wrote that Aquinas (2000) explained,

For it is only when acted upon by the first cause that the intermediate causes will produce the change: if the hand does not move the stick, the stick will not move anything else. Hence one is bound to arrive at some first cause of change not itself being changed by anything, and this is what everybody understands by God. (p. 32)

Thomas Aquinas perceived that the initial state is the origin of the continuum. With a final point, Archimedes would call this a summation. Regardless of the origin, considering the final point as the end of history, Hegel (1956) argued that “The History of the world is none other than the progress of the consciousness of freedom” (p. 19). The Bible challenges that by conserving a story throughout history. The Almighty, spoken on behalf of by the prophet Isaiah (KJV), said, “And who, as I, shall call, and shall declare it, and set it in order for me, since I appointed the ancient people? And the things that are coming, and shall come, let them shew unto them” (Is 44:7). The progress that Hegel mentioned leaves behind truths perceived as irrational for the evolution of validity. Thus, when documenting computer applications, agreement with Hegel would require abandoning whatever causes errors in usefulness according to rationality. However, mainstream physicists who discuss quantum mechanics usually agree that human reason is not always sufficient for understanding the world. The Nazis, for example, were rational in that they had a goal in mind that they thought would be useful to them: creating a master race by destroying the Jews. Therefore, when Arons mentioned that law may be derived from theory, this is in agreement with the mathematical sciences, but it did not embed the assumptions into human perception; empirical observations were considered a stepping stone towards the highest understanding. Therefore, documentation should be valued for what it can help beyond the code. Further, analytically oriented computer scientists should be raised up by reflecting on the big picture when developing applications because doing so provides more contextual understanding.

In the coming weeks, I will work on more courses related to computer science and information systems. That said, there are alternative worldviews in this pluralistic nation that I live among as an American. While that is the case, I do think that I should stay focused on what is straight ahead that is reckoned for me. There may be chronological parameters that allow for people meeting in the middle. Seeking true exegesis for studying the perceptions of others is what I think is the way. Thus, I hope that my comments provide such opportunities over time.

References

Brinkman, W. J., & Sanders, A. F. (2013). Ethics in a Computing Culture. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Charry, E. T., & Aquinas, T. (2000). Inquiring after God by Means of Scientific Study. In Inquiring after God: Classic and Contemporary readings (p. 32). Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Hegel, G. W. (1956). The Philosophy of History.

Pickover, C. A. (2015). The Physics Devotional: Celebrating the Wisdom and Beauty of Physics.

Retaining Humanity in the Information Age

In recent times, situations with humans and machine computers increased. For evidence, there is a recent analysis by a doctor of philosophy student at Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Lab (CSAIL), Carrie Cai, and supported by Massachusetts Institute of Technology professors Rob Miller and Jim Glass, former CSAIL postdoc Philip Guo, and undergraduate Anji Ren. Adam Conner-Simons in CSAIL expressed the results of Cai’s leadership related to a language-learning app labeled with the name WaitChatter. Conner-Simons (2015) said, “In a pilot study, WaitChatter users learned an average of about four words a day over a period of two weeks. The system takes words from both a built-in list as well as the user’s ongoing chat conversations.” The presence of interconnectivity is apparent, but learning in and of itself as a purpose did not save even the wisest Ancient Grecians from travailing. For instance, the reader may look to the writings of Plato about Socrates and reckon the irritation that he felt at being the target of sophistry despite his effort of love for his people (Cahn, Markie, 2012 p. 16-32).

Within these times, Byron Spice shared information about the results of Facebook and Carnegie Mellon University researchers, Moira Burke and Robert Kraut, on personal interactions with computers. Spice (2016) said, “By considering mood and behavior over time, Burke and Kraut’s study revealed that Facebook interactions with friends predicted improvements in such measures of well-being as satisfaction with life, happiness, loneliness and depression.” The psychological importance of understanding what and who people love is consistently important for humanity. Othello’s moral failings because of not understanding Iago’s hatred towards him serves as a sign and a wonder of the opposite being true as well, forever (Shakespeare).

For people, what we do is not as important as why we do it. Marshall McLuhan spoke about media serving as extensions of the human body. McLuhan (1989) said, “Without the artist’s intervention man merely adapts to his technologies and become their servo-mechanism” (p. 98). Therefore, people engineering their environments might become re-engineered for the new environments; the man without creativity will be controlled by circumstances. The Book of Proverbs (KJV) states, “My son, fear thou the LORD and the king: and meddle not with them that are given to change” (24:21). People may integrate faith with reason or develop derivative works of human-to-human or human-to-world relationships in the form of human-computer interactions, and prayerfully the truths that apply to all people will be retained. For learning languages as part of daily labor, the labor should be retained as done by Cai’s team. When seeking the transcendent with love from people, dependence on emotion more than logic or credibility is a timeless warning sign about misplacing trust in the hearts of men given to change more than the wisdom of those who study and reflect on relevance beyond the self. Further, the human self without a consistent truth about him will be repurposed for someone else’s design. Therefore, when interacting with computers designed by humanity, the reader should take care that he retains what results in blessings for ourselves and other people; that the soul of man is enriched.

References

Cahn, S. M., & Markie, P. J. (2012). Ethics: History, theory, and contemporary issues (5th ed.). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. p. 16-32

Conner-Simons, A. (2015, May 14). Learn a language while you text | MIT News. Retrieved from http://news.mit.edu/2015/learn-language-while-you-text-0514

Shakespeare, W., & Barnet, S. (1996). Othello.

Spice, B. (2016, September 6). Friends Help Friends on Facebook Feel Better | Carnegie Mellon School of Computer Science. Retrieved from https://www.scs.cmu.edu/news/friends-help-friends-facebook-feel-better

An Application of Epistemic Proof for the Teleological View

Today, the Christian Broadcasting Network reported about a perceived issue related to a comment that Republican Party Chairman, Reince Priebus, said about President-elect Donald Trump. Priebus (2016) asserted, “Over two millennia ago, a new hope was born into the world, a Savior who would offer the promise of salvation to all mankind. Just as the three wise men did on that night, this Christmas heralds a time to celebrate the good news of a new King” (CBN News). Some became enraged and claimed the press release stated by Priebus as about Trump (2016). As we will see, there are competing views related to this situation that may be the right framework for understanding the Biblical Scriptures followed then by other messages in turn. In relation to the exegetical process of accepting data, hermeneutics for informative purposes, and applying it to contemporary issues, there are two opposing approaches to this. One approach that many claim is identifying a single piece of the Bible as representative of the entire Bible, or microscopic view. For example, people with the microscopic view and perhaps the most recent wave of feminist theology in contemporary times might say that the Apostle Paul’s first Epistle to Timothy contains a sexist theme. The Apostle Paul (KJV) said, “But I suffer not a woman to teach, nor to usurp authority over the man, but to be in silence” (1 Tim 2:12). In and of itself, this Scriptural verse shows the fallen state of man, male and female; there is inequality in education thus in every level of society. However, the Biblical Scriptures are a collection of books with collective truth that is relevant to this verse. One such verse is the Psalm (KJV), “The statutes of the LORD are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the LORD is pure, enlightening the eyes” (19:8). This may be cross-referenced with the Psalm, “The words of the LORD are pure words; As silver tried in a furnace on the earth, refined seven times” (12:6).

For the first mentioned Psalm, the reader might relate to the sun coming up day after day, increasing the health of the person who is exposed to it and waking him up. Similarly, the second mentioned Psalm describes that the reality of the Word of the Most High is shown through understanding the history of these messages that is the precedent for each message. When looking at the second chapter, verse 12 of Paul’s Epistle to Timothy, we may thus look to previous Biblical Scriptures. For example, Esther the queen informed the king Ahasuerus about the plot that advisor to the king, Haman the son of Hammedatha the Agagite, had for destroying the Jews because Mordecai, another Jew, did not treat Haman with reverence because the faith of Israel, despite being dispersed, was not fully assimilated into other societies (Est 3:1-6, 7:1-6). The Matthew Henry Commentary states, “The religion of a Jew forbade him to give honours to any mortal man which savoured of idolatry, especially to so wicked a man as Haman” (Henry). The precept that Esther, a woman, taught a man, and in doing so preserved the Most High’s children by implicitly doing His work contradicts the microscopic view, but not Paul’s Epistle.

In contemporary Christian theology on marriage, Richard J. Foster shared insights. Foster said, “Marriage that is Christian is covenantal. A covenant is a promise – a pledge of love, loyalty, and faithfulness. A covenant involves continuity – the sense of a common future to look forward to and a history to look back on together” (Charry, 2000, p. 148). Therefore, man and woman work together with neither lording himself or herself over the other. The concept of covenant may be derived from this and applied to contemporary issues. This is the teleological view for approaching the Biblical Scriptures integrated into the exegetical process. Thus, the reader may look to other aspects of history related to Trump’s situation so that a true understanding may be perceived. In recent times, a common disagreement that is not so new is about honoring the birth of Christ on a single day of the Gregorian calendar year. Therefore, when John Weaver, a leading aide to Ohio Governor John Kasich expressed hatred towards this comment (CBN News), I think that this was interpreted as a man lording himself over the people who he is elected for so that he may serve. However, Gregg Birnbaum and Kevin Liptak reported on CNN that Trump recently spoke about reasserting the relevance of December the twenty-fifth as a special day for the world and Christianity should be celebrated rather than judged (CNN, 2016). Therefore, in accepting historical details as a union of intervals, interpreting them for personal understanding, and applying them to contemporary issues, the teleological view of reality is probably more tenable than the microscopic view might first appear.

References

Birnbaum, G., Liptak, K., & CNN. (2016, June 25). Trump, fist raised, wishes all a Merry Christmas – CNNPolitics.com. Retrieved from http://www.cnn.com/2016/12/25/politics/trump-christmas-tweet/index.html

Charry, E. T. (2000). Inquiring after God: Classic and Contemporary Readings. Oxford, MA: Blackwell.

CBN News. (2016, December 26). RNC Press Release On Christ’s Birth Offends Top Political Aide | CBN.com. Retrieved from http://www1.cbn.com/cbnnews/us/2016/december/rnc-press-release-on-christs-birth-offends-top-political-aide

Henry, M. (n.d.). Esther 3:6 Commentaries. Retrieved from http://biblehub.com/esther/3-6.htm

Data Privacy and Protections

For the ongoing discussion of data theory and applications, Science News, an organization that reports research of various subjects, released an article called Theoretical computer science provides answers to data privacy problem. For the purpose of this article, concepts related to the handling of data are discussed, and their applications. Specifically, the purposes that relate data to people are recognizable. Science News (2015) said, “Some data may be trivial, but in many cases, data are deeply personal. They can even influence our insurance premiums or the price we pay for a product online.” An example of a working system model with privacy worked with was reported by Science News as researched by a professor of computer science in Harvard University and former director of the Center of Research on Computation and Society, Salil Vadhan (2015). Described as “differential privacy” (2015), this concept protects data with approximations. With this premise, a series of queries may provide an identifiable pattern; a summation may be reckoned. The calculus of this approximation would then be equivalent to an integral that will produce an exact result. Science News reported that this is defended against by good judgment that would be increasing randomization and taking full care in comparing characteristics across queries (2015). This assessment seems vague because what people view as good judgment depends on initial assumptions about reality.

Although rule utilitarianism, for example, is discussed in contemporary times as a serious ethical concept, there is debate about its efficacy. Bo Brinkman and Alton F. Sanders describe rule utilitarianism. Brinkman and Sanders (2013) said, “In rule utilitarianism, we select a set of rules, and each act is evaluated as to whether it conforms to them” (p. 16). In this case, a rule utilitarian approach might be that the supposedly good judgment of differential privacy is people who may have access will have the keys to accurate information retrieval, and people with incorrect keys will get incorrect values returned to them. In the late 20th century AD, Winslett, et al. (1994) supposed a similar proposal. Winslett et al. (1994) said, “We believe that many of the MLS problems can be resolved by directly addressing the question of what an MLS database means, rather than making syntactic adjustments to avoid semantic problems” (p. 627). This proposal essentially asserted that lying is an effective form of confidentiality for cyber security. Although the supposed truth of relative semantics makes sense for the access key holders for secret information in short term, this causes a failure of integrity. For a historical account, the Apostle Paul discussed the Hebrew Bible. Paul (KJV) said, “As it is written, There is none righteous, no, not one:” (Rom 3:10). This was the view before grace.

As Joachim Biskup showed, lying is not the correct approach. Biskup (2000) said, “The initial belief and the first k-1 answers (lies) would reveal the last secret psi_k.” This is a mathematical statement that reflects a Biblical prophecy. The Son of Man (KJV) said, “Therefore whatsoever ye have spoken in darkness shall be heard in the light; and that which ye have spoken in the ear in closets shall be proclaimed upon the housetops” (Lu 12:3). Therefore, when randomizing data for the purpose of producing lies or untrue information for those who seek unauthorized access to data, I think that more secure concepts require something other than this sort of concept because true information will eventually be revealed, though that may be understood as defense in depth with protections being more understood as unapproachable like the image that a security guard for a crucial represents to attackers, defenders, and other vulnerable groups. Similarly, an available mathematical problem that computers would have difficulty solving would serve as a known defense that would be well defensible in contemporary times.

References

Biskup, J. (2000). For unknown secrecies refusal is better than lying. Data & Knowledge Engineering, 33(1), 1-23. doi:10.1016/S0169-023X(99)00043-9

Brinkman, W. J., & Sanders, A. F. (2013). Ethics in a Computing Culture. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.

Marianne Winslett, Kenneth Smith, and Xiaolei Qian. 1994. Formal query languages for secure relational databases. ACM Trans. Database Syst. 19, 4 (December 1994), 626-662. DOI=http://0-dx.doi.org.library.regent.edu/10.1145/195664.195675

National Science Foundation. (2015, October 7). Theoretical computer science provides answers to data privacy problem: New tools allow researchers to share and study sensitive data safely by applying ‘differential privacy’. ScienceDaily. Retrieved December 25, 2016 from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/10/151007144933.htm